Today, they are children and teenagers.
But they carry a burden shared by few others because in due course they will be on the throne of their respective nations.
And with changes to inheritance rules in recent years, many of these are future queens, not kings.
From an Oxford student to a keen jockey with a horse named Mojito, we look at the young royals set to rule Europe in the decades to come…
Princess Leonor of Spain, 17
The Spanish princess Leonor is the eldest daughter of King Felipe VI and Queen Letizia of Spain
Princess Leonor of Spain, 17, pictured in her military uniform on her first full day at the General Military Academy of Zaragoza
Spanish princess Leonor is the eldest daughter of King Felipe VI and Queen Letizia.
Titled Princess of Asturias, Leonor is the heir presumptive to the Spanish throne. But only so long as her parents don’t give birth to a son.
Spain still have male primogeniture when it comes to the crown and its succession.
Her sister, Princess Sofa, is two years her junior.
Leonor has been honing her skills to become queen from a young age and is believed to speak four languages.
The composed princess gave her first public speech in 2018 when she was just 13 years old to mark the 40th anniversary of the Spanish constitution.
In 2019, she delivered an impressive speech at the Princess of Girona Foundation Awards in Barcelona in four languages – Spanish, Catalan, English and Arabic.
As well as inheriting her mother’s polished sense of style, she has reportedly learned how to play tennis, sail, perform gymnastics and play the cello.
Leonor, pictured centre left, with her father King Felipe VI, sister Princess Sofia and mother Queen Letizia. Leonor remains heir to the throne unless her parents give birth to a son
Princess Leonor, eldest daughter of King Felipe VI and Queen Letizia of Spain, on a visit to famous pilgrimage town, Santiago de Compostela in 2022
The talented teenager, pictured in Barcelona last year, has been honing her skills to become a monarch from a young age and is believed to speak four languages
Leonor, heir to the Spanish throne, is awarded the Order of the Golden Fleece in 2018
The Spanish heir to the throne pictured in 2021 at UWC Atlantic College in Wales
The royal made her first solo appearance without her mother and father aged 15 as shepresided over the Cervantes Institute’s 30th anniversary in Madrid in 2021.
She was welcomed by the then Deputy Prime Minister, Carmen Calvo and the director of the Cervantes Institute, Luis Garca Montero, sitting front row at the event.
Six months later, the princess headed to Wales to study at the private Atlantic College.
Nicknamed ‘Hippie Hogwarts’, the school curriculum has included unusual activities such as Tai Chi and Tibetan literature. It has a remarkable cliff top location in a 12th century castle in the Vale of Glamorgan.
Leonor enrolled on a 67,000, two-year course to study for her International Baccalaureate diploma at the school, which she has now completed.
Meanwhile, Leonor was recently pictured at military school for the first time as she embarks upon three years of training.
The heir to the Spanish throne must complete the three years in line with tradition as she follows the path of her father, King Felipe.
Pictured at the General Military Academy of Zaragoza on her first full day of studying, Leonor looked ever the military princess, dressed in camouflage and concentrating hard in lessons.
It was also revealed that the young Princess would go on to study law at university once her training with the military is complete, although her choice of university has not yet been revealed.
Princess Catharina-Amalia of the Netherlands, 19
Catharina-Amalia, daughter of King Willem-Alexander and Queen Maxima of The Netherlands
The heir to the throne (far right) also has two younger sisters, Princess Alexia and Princess Ariane, pictured together with their parents in Amsterdam in 2022
Catharina-Amalia became the heir apparent when her grandmother Queen Beatrix abdicated in 2013.
The Queen’s son, Willem-Alexander, took over as monarch and Catharina-Amalia became Princess of Orange.
Along with her sisters Princess Alexia and Princess Ariane, Catharina-Amalia spent the early years of her life at Eikenhorst Villa in Wassenaar, an affluent suburb of The Hague.
Willem-Alexander once said in an interview:’We do our best to be really with them on holidays or weekends or even at breakfast in the mornings.’
The family enjoyed days out cycling and to the beach, and holidays to Argentina, the homeland of Amalia’s mother, Queen Maxima.
The family moved toHuis ten Bosch, the royal palace in The Hague, when Willem-Alexander became monarch n 2013.
The Princess attended school atthe Christelijk Gymnasium Sorghvliet in The Hague where she sat on the student council and took part inthe Model United Nations of the International School of The Hague.
The princess took a gap year before starting her degree and turned down a 1.6 million yearly allowance that she would have been entitled to when she turned 18
The young princess joined her parents for a two-week tour of the Dutch Caribbean Islands earlier this year – her first official tour of her career
She decided to take a gap year before starting her degree and turned downa 1.6 million yearly allowance that she would have been entitled to when she turned 18.
Writing a letter to Prime Minister Mark Rutte, she said that she would not feel comfortable taking the money without performing royal duties.
The letter, published byNOS, the Dutch public news broadcaster, read: ‘On 7 December 2021, I will be 18 and, according to the law, receive an allowance.
‘I find that uncomfortable as long as I do not do anything for it in return, and while other students have a much tougher time of it, particularly in this period of coronavirus.’
In September last year, the Princess began studyingPolitics, Psychology, Law and Economics at the University of Amsterdam and revealed she would live in a rented house share with her fellow students.
However, the Princess was forced to move out of herstudent accommodation and return to The Hague the following month fearing a gangland plot to kidnap her.
Earlier this year, the royal opened up about ‘missing normal life’ over the incident and in a clip shared by NOS, she said: ‘I’m going to be very honest, I’m still having a very hard time.
‘I miss the normal life, the life of a student. Walking the streets, being able to go to a store,’ she added.
Her mother, Queen Maxima, spoke openly during a state visit to Sweden with her husband King Willem-Alexander and was quoted by Dutch news agency ANP saying: ‘She can hardly leave the house.
‘The consequences are very difficult for her. There is no student life for her like others have,’ she added with an unusual candour.
In an authorised biography entitled Amalia, released in 2021, the royal admitted she did not feel ready to be Queen yet.
She travelled to the Dutch Caribbean islands of Bonaire, Aruba, Curaao, Sint Maarten, Sint Eustatius and Saba with her father King Willem-Alexander and mother Queen Maxima
Princess Amalia and mother queen Maxima on a two-week Caribbean tour
She said she would ask her mother to step in temporarily if her father were to die suddenly.
‘But I said to my father: you just keep on eating healthy and exercising a lot,’ the teenage princess added.
Biographer Claudia de Breij revealed Amalia had a part-time job at a beachside cafe, feels self-conscious when she is recognised by members of the public and would pursue a career as a singer or equestrian – she is a keen jockey with a horse named Mojito – if she was not destined to be queen.
Princess Elisabeth of Belgium, 21
Princess Elisabeth, daughter of King Philippe and Queen Mathilde, is heir to the Belgian throne
The eldest daughter of King Philippe and Queen Mathilde, she is pictured with her parents and Princess Eleonore (far left) Prince Gabriel and Prince Emmanuel (far right)
The young royal, pictured on her 21st birthday last year, is another student of Atlantic College in Wales. She gained her International Baccalaureate in 2020
Princess Elisabeth is the eldest of King Philippe and Queen Mathilde of Belgium’s four children.
The law was changed in 1991 so that the eldest child, regardless of whether they are a son or daughter, would be the next to inherit the throne. When her father became King in 2013, Elisabeth became the heir to the throne and Duchess of Brabant.
The young royal was also a former student of Atlantic College in Wales, obtaining herInternational Baccalaureate in 2020.
She thencompleted a one-year course in social and military sciences at the Royal Military Academy whichis said to teach in-depth about the four components of Belgian defence: Army, Air Force, Navy and Medical.
In 2021,she was photographed at the Lagland camp in Arlon, where she marched in formation with her fellow cadets.
For the officer cadets of the Royal Military Academy, this camp is part of the last training phase for first year students, and constitutes part of the Initial Military Phase.
The law was changed in 1991 so that the eldest child inherits the throne regardless of gender
In October 2021, the Princess began studying History and Politics at Lincoln College, Oxford
She completed a one-year course in social and military sciences at the Royal Military Academy
In October 2021, the Princess began studying History and Politics at Lincoln College, Oxford.
According to Belgian newspaper Le Soir, the princess completed a written entrance exam in history ‘anonymously’ so that her social status would not affect her marks.
Elisabeth is believed to have chosen the course herself, in agreement with her parents, and reportedly consulted with graduates from various universities and made her decision based on what would be most useful to her in her role as queen later in life.
The high-achieving Princess, who isfluent in Dutch, French, German and English, continues to juggle her degree with military training back home.
Prince Christian of Denmark, 17
Prince Christian of Denmark, 17, is the eldest child and only son of Crown Prince Frederik and Crown Princess Mary
Crown Prince Frederik and Crown Princess Mary of Denmark with Prince Christian, Princess Isabella, Prince Vincent and Princess Josephine at the Danish Church in Paris in May
Frederik and Mary of Denmark pose for photographs with their son Christian on his first day of School in August 2011
Prince Christian of Denmark, 17, is the eldest child and only son of Crown Prince Frederik and Crown Princess Mary.
Christian was born on October 15, 2005,at Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen,and is known by his title of Count of Monpezat.
He is second-in-line to the throne of Denmark behind his grandmother, Queen Margrethe, and his father.
Prince Frederik and his wife followed the Danish tradition when naming their son – where each king alternatesbetween the names Frederik and Christian.
This meant that a son born to Crown Prince Frederik would be called Christian.
Christian’s two middle names, Henri and John, are taken from his two grandfathers.
Just over a year later, the young Prince made his first visit to Australia at the end of 2006, withthe family travelling to Tasmania to visit Princess Mary’s relatives.
Mary and Frederik chose to keep their son’s upbringing relatively private in his early years.
He is second-in-line to the throne of Denmark behind his grandmother and father
Mary and Frederik chose to keep their son’s upbringing relatively private in his early years
The Danish Royal Familyduring the confirmation of Princess Isabella of Denmark at on April 30, 2022,in Fredensborg, Denmark
It wasn’t until 2012 that Christian eventually attended his first official royal engagement with his grandmother, the Queen.
His parents broke away from royal tradition when they decided to enrol him in preschool in 2007 and again in 2011 when he went on to primary school.
Christian became the first Danish royal to attend a public state school, Tranegrdskolen in Hellerup, and his siblings,Princess Isabella of Denmark, 15, andPrince Vincent and Princess Josephine, 10, joined him in the years that followed.
At the start of 2020, all four of the royal children began a 12-week program at the Lemania-Verbier International School in Switzerland. But, just weeks into their studies the COVID-19 pandemic hit and they returned to Denmark.
Christian is currently undertaking the final years of his education at Ordrup Gymnasium, a public school in Copenhagen.
In June,Princess Mary’s eldest son shocked royal fans with a bold announcement ahead of his 18th birthday. The young prince will break protocol by forgoing his royal allowance to instead focus on his education.
Christian is currently undertaking the final years of his education at Ordrup Gymnasium
Prince Christian is a keen sportsman. He plays football, rides horses and regularly takes part in runs with his parents
While the future Danish King is entitled to government funding once he reaches adulthood, he will not accept payments and become a full-time royal until he is 21 years of age.
The statementto the Royal House’s Instagram page said Christian will refrain from the spotlight but one day return to making public appearances in an official capacity.
Prince Christian only appears on major events with the Danish royal family, including the recent 83rd birthday celebrations of Queen Margrethe.
There has been recent speculation that Christian has become close to Princess Maria Chiara di Borbone-Two Sicilies.
Prince Christian is fluent in Danish, English and French and is a keen sportsman. He plays football, rides horses and regularly takes part in runs with his parents.
Prince Jacques of Monaco, eight
Next in line for the throne of Monaco after Prince Albert is Crown Prince Jacques
Jacques was born at the Princess Grace Hospital Centre on December, 10, 2014, in Monaco two minutes after his twin sister, Princess Gabriella
While Jacques is a few minutes younger than his twin sister, Monaco is one of the few countries in Europe still governed by male-preference primogeniture
Next in line for the throne of Monaco after Prince Albert isCrown Prince Jacques.
The young Prince, who is the son of Prince Albert and Princess Charlene,also holds the title Marquis of Baux, which has been passed on to Monegasque heirs apparent since 1641.
Jacques was born on December, 10, 2014, having beendelivered via caesarean section at the Princess Grace Hospital in Monaco, named after Albert’s mother, Hollywood actress, Grace Kelly.
He was born who minutes after his twin sister Gabriella, a statement from the palace confirmed at the time.
Their births were celebrated with 21 cannon shots each, 15 minutes of church bells and boat horns.
The twins, both eight, were formally presented to the public on January 7, 2015, and the date has since become a recognised as a public holiday in Monaco.
WhileJacques is a few minutes younger than his twin sister,Monaco is one of the few countries in Europe still governed by male-preference primogeniture -meaning the eldest son inherits the throne over any older sisters.
It is only if a female heir has no eligible brothers or brothers with surviving male descendants that she will take the throne.
Prince Albert revealed to People that Jacques is quieter and shyer than his sister, but said he ‘comes up with some funny things’
Princess Charlene chose the name Jacques as it is a name common in southern Africa, where she grew up
Jacques also has an older half-sister, Jazmin Grace Grimaldi, and an older half-brother, Alexandre Grimaldi-Coste, from their father’s previous relationships.
The young prince was baptized at the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception on May 10, 2015, where he was also awarded the Grand Cross of the Order of Grimaldi.
Princess Charlene chose the name Jacques as it is a name native to South Africa, where she grew up.
He and his sister are currently enrolled at the L’Institution Franois d’Assise-Nicolas Barr since September, which is a private school in Monaco.
Talking to People, Prince Albert added that the twins are ‘very curious about geography and science.’
‘We went through a whole phase of them wanting to know all about the oceans and planets and everything about the solar system,’ he explained
Prince Albert revealed to People that Jacques is quieter and shyer than his sister, but said he ‘comes up with some funny things’.
He added that the younger twin is an observer who first likes to size things up before making a decision.
Although the twins have made public appearances with their parents, their lives for the most part are kept out of the spotlight so that they can enjoy their childhood.
Princess Ingrid Alexandra of Norway, 19
Princess Ingrid Alexandra, pictured in 2022, is in line to inherit the Norwegian crown
Norway’s Princess Ingrid Alexandra (front centre) poses for a family photo with (front L and R) Norway’s King Harald V and Norway’s Queen Sonja and (back LtoR) Marit Tjessem, Norway’s Crown Princess Mette-Marit, Norway’s Crown Prince Haakon, Norway’s Prince Sverre Magnus and Marius Borg Hoiby on the occasion of a gala dinner for her 18th birthday in Oslo on June 17, 2022.
Ingrid Alexandra attended the same local primary school as her half-brother,Marius Borg Hiby. Here she is pictured for National Day celebrations at the royal residence in Skaugum
Second in line to the throne after her father, Princess Ingrid is the daughter of Crown Prince Haakon and Crown Princess Mette-Marit, and granddaughter of current ruler, King Harald V of Norway.
Ingrid Alexandra will become Norway’s second female monarch after her father secured her place in the line of succession by changing the law to allow first-born daughters to ascend the throne over their younger male siblings.
The last Norwegian queen was 600 years ago: Queen Margaret reigned over Norway, Denmark and Sweden from the late 1380s until her death in 1412.
Ingrid has a younger brother, Prince Sverre Magnus and an older half-brother, Marius Borg Hiby, who is Mette-Marit’s son from a previous relationship.
In an attempt by her parents to give her as ordinary a childhood as possible,Ingrid Alexandra attended the same local primary school as her half-brother.
Newspaper reports said the princess would walk to school with Marius and school officials hoped to make it a place where she could make friends and enjoy some relief from public scrutiny.
She was later moved to a private international school in Oslo so she could become fluent in English and transferred to two more schools during her education.
The princess turned 18 at the start of last year and joined her grandfather, King Harald V, on the day for a cabinet meeting at the Royal Palace as she marked her coming of age.
In 2021, the princess visited a female-only squadron of the army to learn more about their work and co-piloted a plane during a tour of a Norwegian air force base
She was moved to a private international school in Oslo so she could become fluent in English. Pictured with Manchester City’s Norwegian star Erling Haaland for a friendly game
In the next few years, she will increase her public profile and take on more responsibilities on behalf of the royal family but will continue to focus on her education, said the palace in a statement on her 18th birthday.
The pandemic meant that formal celebrations for the princess’s birthday were postponed. But she later held a glamorous party in June 2022 to mark the event in style.
A host of European royals were invited, includingCrown Princess Victoria of Sweden,Crown Prince Frederik of Denmark and King Felipe VI of Spain – all of whom are godparents of the princess, with their spouses.
A group of young princesses also enjoyed the party, including Princess Estelle of Sweden, Princess Catharina-Amalia of the Netherlands and Princess Elisabeth of Belgium – all of whom are also in line to inherit the throne in their respective countries.
Ingrid Alexandra has taken part in a number of public engagements, including opening a public sculpture park within the palace gardens in her name in 2016to mark the 25th anniversary of King Harald V’s reign.
She was shown given Prince William and Kate a tour of the sculpture park while they visited Norway in 2018.
The royal also toured several army and air force bases in Norway to learn more about the country’s armed forces. When she ascends the throne, she will become commandant of Norway’s armies.
In 2021, shevisited a female-only squadron of the army to learn more about their work andco-piloted a plane during a tour of a royal air force base.
Sitting in the backseat of an F-16 fighter jet, the teenage princess observed as a trained pilot flew it away from the base, and later was allowed to control it briefly during a flight over Northern Norway.
She was also a bridesmaid at the wedding of her godmother, Crown Princess Victoria of Sweden, in 2010.
Aside from her royal duties,Ingrid Alexandra enjoys skiing, boxer and surfer, winning a gold medal in the Norwegian surfing championship for juniors in October 2020.
Princess Estelle of Sweden, 11
Eleven-year old Princess Estelle is the eldest grandchild of King Carl XVI Gustaf and the eldest child of heir to the Swedish throne, Crown Princess Victoria
The King of Sweden has said he felt it ‘wasn’t fair’ that his daughter was made to heir-to-the-throne when a change in succession laws happened in 1980 – stripping his son of his position as King in waiting (pictured, Crown Princess Victoria with the King, and her daughter Princess Estelle)
Born in 2012, Princess Estelle is the eldest grandchild of King Carl XVI Gustaf and the eldest child of heir to the throne, Crown Princess Victoria.
As Estelle was the firstborn child of the heir to the throne, her birth in Solna was celebrated with two rounds of twenty-one gun salutes.
She has a collection of royal godparents, includingKing Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands,Crown Prince Haakon of Norway and Crown Princess Mary of Denmark.
The princess previously attended a pre-school near Stockholm which followed the Ur and Skur outdoor teaching methods to focus on the natural world.
She now attends Campus Manilla in Stockholm where she was joined last year by her younger brother, Prince Oscar.
The 1979 Act of Succession means that Estelle, as the eldest child, will inherit the throne rather than her younger brother and is now second in line to the throne after her mother.
The princess is second in line to the throne after her mother (pictured with her father Prince Daniel, Queen Silvia, Crown Princess Victoria and her younger brother Prince Oscar)
The princess, pictured in 2022, had previously attended a pre-school near Stockholm which followed the Ur and Skur outdoor teaching methods to focus on the natural world
She now attends Campus Manilla in Stockholm where she was joined last year by her younger brother. Estelle is pictured here with her family on Swedish National Day
The young Princess Estelle regularly makes appearances with mother Crown Princess Victoria and father Daniel Westling. Westling, Victoria’s personal trainer, married her in 2010
The law, which came into effect some time ago (on 1 January 1980) had also meant that Estelle’s mother, Crown Princess Victoria, became heir to the throne when she was two years old – a title which was stripped from her younger brother, Carl Philip, at the time.
Reflecting on the change in an interview with local news channel SVT earlier this year, Estelle’s grandfatherKing Carl Gustaf said he felt it had been unfair to apply the new law to his children after they were already born.
‘It’s tricky to have laws that work retroactively. It doesn’t seem wise,’ he said.
‘You can accept the next generation that’s okay. But it was my son who was born, and they got rid of it all,’ he said, adding: ‘It’s quite strange. You can’t do that.’
When the interviewer asked him if it had been unfair to strip his son of his title after he’d already been born, he replied: ‘Yes, I think so.’
The young Princess Estelle regularly makes appearances with her mother Crown Princess Victoria and her fatherDaniel Westling, who was Victoria’s personal trainer and married the royal in 2010.
She carried out her first royal engagement in 2014 at just two years old when she opened a ‘fairytale path’ at Linkping Castle.
Prince Charles ofLuxembourg, three
Prince Charles is the eldest child of Hereditary Grand Duke Guillaume and Hereditary Grand Duchess Stphanie and was born on May 10, 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic
Prince Charles was baptised on September 19, 2020, at the Abbey of St. Maurice and St. Maurus of Clervaux in Luxembourg
In March of this year, Charles became an older brother toPrince Francois, who is third in line
Prince Charles is second in the line of succession to the throne of Luxembourg.
He is the eldest child of Hereditary Grand Duke Guillaume and Hereditary Grand Duchess Stphanie and was born on May 10, 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic.
He was born at Grand Duchess Charlotte Maternity Hospital in Luxembourg City and weighed 3.190kg.
Luxembourg’s Palace announced the happy news on Twitter, sharing that their son was born at 5.13am at la Maternit Grande-Duchesse Charlotte.
Images of baby Charles were also shared on Twitter and gave royal fans the first glimpse of the newborn.
The announcement read: ‘Time stood still at the Chteau de Berg during a video call during which the Grand Duke and the Grand Duchess had the immense joy of meeting their grandson for the first time: Prince Charles.’
In a series of snaps, the young royal proved he had quite the sweet tooth as he was pictured tucking into cake with his parents
He was first introduced to his grandparents, the Grand Duke Henri and Grand Duchess Maria Teresa, over a video call given the lockdown regulations.
Hereditary Grand Duke Guillaume also spoke a few hours after the birth of Prince Charles about the wonderful new addition to the family.
The new father shared his joy at becoming a father for the first time.
He said ‘today is a wonderful dayperhaps the most incredible day that we will have in our lives, to be able to greet a child that comes into one’s life is the most magical thing a couple can have.’
Prince Charles was baptised on September 19, 2020, at the Abbey of St. Maurice and St. Maurus of Clervaux in Luxembourg. His godparents are his maternal aunt Countess Galle de Lannoy and his paternal uncle Prince Louis of Luxembourg
To mark the young royal’s birthday in May, his parents shared a series of snaps of Charles and hisyounger brother Prince Francois, who was born in March.
Prince George, ten
A new portrait of Prince George, who is second in line to the British throne, released to mark his tenth birthdayon July 22
Prince William and Princess Kate presented their newborn son, Prince George, to the world the day following his birth at St Mary’s Hospital, Paddington
George wore baby blue for his appearance at the annual Trooping The Colour – an echo of the outfit worn when William was himself a baby in 1984
With the passing of the late Queen Elizabeth II in September of last year and King Charles’ ascension to the throne, Prince George was moved up to second in line for the British throne.
Prince George was born at 4.24pm on July 22, 2013, at St Mary’s Hospital in Paddington, London – he is the eldest child to Prince William and Princess Catherine of Wales.
The royals left hospital with their new son on 23rd July, but not forgetting to pause on the steps of the Lindo Wing to show the world a first glimpse of the new prince.
George was christened on October 23, 2013, at The Chapel Royal, St James’s Palace by The Archbishop of Canterbury, the Most Reverend Justin Welby.
The young prince made his royal tour debut when he was 9 months old when the family spent three weeks in New Zealand and Australia in April 2014 – giving him a taste of his role as future King.
The following year, George made his first public appearance on the balcony of Buckingham Palace following the Trooping the Colour parade and stole the show with his adorable facial expressions – which were identical to a young Prince William.
Prince George was thePage of Honour at King Charles’s coronation ceremony. Along with three other page boys, he helped carry his grandfather’s cape in and out of Westminster Abbey
In January 2016, George began his education at the Westacre Montessori School nursery in Norfolk, before moving toThomas’s Battersea School just over a year later.
In 2022, the family moved to Adelaide Cottage in Windsor. And since September, George and his siblings, Princess Charlotte and Prince Louis, have attended Lambrook, an independent preparatory school in Berkshire.
George recently served as a page of honour at his grandfather’s Coronation in May.